Bulgaria succeeded in negotiating a recovery of Southern Dobruja, part of Romania since 1913, in the Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova on 7 September 1940, which reinforced Bulgarian hopes for solving territorial problems without direct involvement in the war. On 22 September, Romania achieved its greatest naval success of the war, when the Austro-Hungarian river monitor SMS Inn struck a Romanian mine and sank near Brăila, the explosion killing the chief of staff of the Austro-Hungarian Danube Flotilla and a telegraphist and wounding 8 more sailors.[75][76][77][78]. In his 1922 book, A History of the Great War: From the battle of Verdun to the third battle of Ypres, John Buchan provides a comprehensive analysis of the Romanian 1916 Campaign: Contemporary history is rarely just to failure. Iran (1941) The Battle of Vulcan Pass was launched on 10 November. "Romania in the First World War: The Pre-War Crisis, 1912–1914". The military convention they signed with the Allies stipulated that France and Britain should start an offensive against Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire no later than August 1916, that Russia would send troops into Dobruja, and that the Romanian army would not be subordinated to Russian command. They departed large parts of the country back to the demarcation lines only in early 1920. Romania attacked from the north and northeast and the Ottoman Empire also intervened in Thrace. A separate Romanian offensive, carried out by the 1st Infantry Division, was much more limited in its aims and it succeeded: capturing the west bank of the Cerna River within the Banat region. The latter, however, had been occupied by Bavarian mountain troops in a flanking movement, and the Battle of Turnu Roșu Pass ended with the Romanians retaking the pass at a cost of 3,000 men. Romania remained neutral when the war started, arguing that Austria-Hungary itself had started the war and, consequently, Romania was under no formal obligation to join it. In the second stage (13-19 August), the Romanian Command completely took over the command of the battle from the Russians. Thus everything seemed to depend on whether Rumania was ready to make any sort of use of her momentary advantage. [86] Furthermore, Russian reinforcements in Romania did not materialize to the number of 200,000 soldiers initially demanded. Defeat of the Taliban government in Afghanistan and fall of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. On October 17, the Romanian Second Army attacked the Austro-Hungarians at Brașov, but the attack was repulsed and the counterattack forced the Romanians to retreat from there also. Romania had been pro-Allied during World War I, but sided with Germany for roughly the same reasons as Finland; the Soviet Union had annexed parts of Romania (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina) in 1940. 390-395 and 870-873, "Military Casualties-World War-Estimated", Statistics Branch, GS, War Department, 25 February 1924; cited in. The dates of the Bulgarian and Ottoman declarations of war are disputed. Béla K. Király, Gunther Erich Rothenberg, Brooklyn College Press, 1987, Erlikman, Vadim (2004).  Serbia The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions, but it suffered from poor training and equipment, particularly when compared to its German counterparts. [56] Faced with the overwhelming superiority of the invading forces, the Romanian army, its ranks thinned from the previous actions, inferior in equipment and lacking Russian support, failed to check the enemy advance. Nepal On August 27, 1916, after Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, formally entering World War I, Romanian troops cross the border of the Austro … Holding out against superior enemy forces, the Romanian troops by 30 August stemmed the advance of the Gerok Group. The cavalry divisions received more machine guns. The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. With France's surrender and Great Britain's retreat, King Carol agreed to appease Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and Thomson signed a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. Here’s why. As one of the defeated central powers of the First World War, the Kingdom of Bulgaria was subject to the Treaty of Neuilly, taking from it lands which contained many ethnic Bulgarians, especially Macedonia, Thrace, and Dobrudja, which were respectively given to Yugoslavia, Greece, and Romania. The first attack was on the Romanian First Army near the town of Hațeg; the attack halted the Romanian advance. It is the day of the union of all branches of our nation. 2, pp. Oman It was carried on under their leadership and control in the free national territory, in spite of Russian attempts to shift the Romanian army beyond the Dniester, inside Ukraine.  Free France (1940-1944) Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire Fight a Four Way War War … [62], The Romanian army's reconstruction involved both re-organization and modernization. 677 (in Bulgarian), Симеонов, Радослав, Величка Михайлова и Донка Василева. Uruguay Bulgaria - Bulgaria - The early communist era: The consolidation of communist power in Bulgaria was carried out by 1948, coinciding with the completion of the peace treaty with the Allies and the presence of Soviet occupation forces. On 30 September, near the Romanian port of Sulina, the German submarine UB-42 launched a torpedo at the Romanian torpedo boat NMS Smeul, but missed. [64], Considerable progress was achieved with the technical-material equipment of the army by means of its provisioning with armament, ammunition and other combat resources from inside the country, but even more importantly from abroad.  Thailand (1942-1945), Co-belligerents 2, p. 829, Glenn E. Torrey, "The Battle of Turtucaia (Tutrakan) (2–6 September 1916): Romania's Grief, Bulgaria's Glory", General Stefan Toshev 1921 “The activity of the 3rd Army in Dobrudja in 1916”, p.68; Действията на III армия в Добруджа 1916, стр. [25] Other sources place the declaration on 30 August[26] or 1 September.  Iraq (1942-1945) [52][53] This was probably caused by an encounter with the Romanian torpedo boat NMS Smeul, whose captain surprised a German submarine near Sulina in November 1916, the latter reportedly never returning to her base at Varna. Although the Romanian army made attempts to stop the advance of the German forces, such as in the Battle of Robănești, these were largely unsuccessful.[49]. Körös took 12 hits and was disabled for the rest of the Romanian Campaign.  Honduras (1941-1945) After the fall of Cernavodă, the defense of the unoccupied Dobruja was left only to the Russians, who were gradually pushed back towards the marshy Danube Delta. The German high command was seriously worried about the prospect of Romania entering the war, Paul von Hindenburg writing: It is certain that so relatively small a state as Rumania had never before been given a role so important, and, indeed, so decisive for the history of the world at so favorable a moment. Rumania's entry into the war had awakened baseless hopes among her Allies; her unsuccess - her inexplicable unsuccess, as it seemed to many - was followed by equally baseless criticism and complaint. The war was a success and the Ottoman Empire lost almost its entire European territories.  Belgium One of the young officers was the future Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. [32] Some of the 57 mm guns were converted into anti-aircraft guns using a carriage designed by the Romanian General Ștefan Burileanu. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Forward, with the help of God! The Rumanian expedition was, let it be remembered, a foraging expedition in part of its purpose, and the provender secured was small. Also, numerous train stations in the country, such as Gara de Nord in Bucharest, served as transit points for troops departing for the Eastern Front. While the Romanian Army was advancing in Transylvania, the first counterattack came from Field Marshal August von Mackensen in command of a multi-national force composed of the Bulgarian Third Army, a German brigade and two divisions of the Ottoman VI Army Corps, whose units began arriving on the Dobrudja front after the initial battles.  Norway (1940) Bucharest was captured on 6 December by Falkenhayn's cavalry. Once there, he quickly formed the view that an unprepared and ill-armed Romania facing a war on two fronts would be a liability, not an asset, to the Allies. Therefore, the Kingdom of Romania continued to exercise the attributes of an independent and sovereign state, allied to the Entente powers. …7, 1918), settlement forced upon Romania after it had been defeated by the Central Powers during World War I. Romania is a European country located north of Bulgaria, on the eastern Balkan Peninsula.During World War II, it fought for the Axis until 1944 when it switched sides to join the Allies, later becoming part of the Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact during the Cold War. According to the treaty, the country had no right to organize a conscription-based military and some territory was ceded to her neigh… In areas populated with Romanians, the Romanian troops were warmly welcomed, and the locals provided them considerable assistance in terms of provisions, billeting and guiding. They pursued to encircle and smash the Romanian and Russian forces through a blow dealt to the northwest in the direction of Focșani, Mărășești and Adjud, conjugated with another blow that had to start from the mountains through the Oituz and Trotuș valleys towards Târgu Ocna and Adjud (the Third Battle of Oituz). Both Romania and Bulgaria are members of NATO. Today we are able to complete the task of our forefathers and to establish forever that which Michael the Great was only able to establish for a moment, namely, a Romanian union on both slopes of the Carpathians. Czechoslovakia (1918-1919), Co-belligerents Vinogradov, "The Years of Neutrality", 460. But in spite of the human, material and military efforts made by the Central Powers throughout this period, they failed to achieve their fundamental political and strategic goal to defeat Romania and knock it out of the war. [73], For 29 days, until 3 September, this sector was the scene of the most important battle fought by the Romanian army during the 1917 campaign. Bahrain  Romania (1941-1944) The German High Command created the Army Group Kühne, headquartered in Petroșani, under the command of General Viktor Kühne (de). And the staunch valor of the Roman legionaries still lived in the heroic band who, under Anastasiu, cut their way from Orsova to the Aluta.[83]. Thus, the front stabilized and allowed for the Romanian army to be refitted and rebuilt. Under the pressure of the ultimatum, the Romanian government agreed to enter the war on the side of the Entente, although the situation on the battle fronts was not favorable. This linkage of the Transylvanian issue with the Sino-Soviet conflict unnerved the Romanians and pressure from Moscow was stepped up in the same month when a plan to create an economic region encompassing much of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, half of Romania, and part of Bulgaria was launched in the Soviet capital.  Portuguese Timor (1942-1945) 833-834, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The next day, pursuing the offensive, the Romanian troops forced the enemy into an ever more disorderly retreat. The Kingdom of Romania was ruled by kings of the House of Hohenzollern from 1866. In spite of our victory over the Rumanian Army, we were definitely weaker as regards the conduct of the war as a whole.  Belgium (1940), Greece (1940-1941) In order to increase the effect of the offensive and draw as many enemy troops as possible northwest of the town of Focșani, the actions of the Romanian Second and Russian Fourth Armies had to precede those of the Romanian First Army.  Greece (1917-1918) The Romanian army continued its retreat towards the Olt River while the cavalry tried to slow the German advance in order to give it time to organize a defensive line along the Olt. Within days of the invasion, Romanian authorities staged a pogrom against the Jewish population in the city of Iasi, the regional capital of Moldavia. SPONSOR: Get 20% off of your first order at Mack Weldon. 68, Симеонов, Радослав, Величка Михайлова и Донка Василева. Go to https://mackweldon.com/ and use promocode "greatwar" at checkout.  Bulgaria (1941-1944) From the point of view of its belligerent status, Romania was a neutral country between 28 July 1914 and 27 August 1916, a belligerent country on the part of the Entente from 27 August 1916 to 9 December 1917, in a state of armistice with the Central Powers from 10 December 1917 to 7 May 1918, a non-combatant country between 7 May 1918 to 10 November 1918, and finally a belligerent country in the Entente between 10 November 1918 and 11 November 1918. Bulgaria - Bulgaria - World War II: After World War II began, Bulgaria proclaimed neutrality. Let justice be done to the fortitude of the Rumanian retreat. The German reserves consisted of the 115th infantry division and two brigades of cyclists. Led by Antonescu, Romania participated fully in the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with around 2,800,000 Romanians out of around 5,000,000 people. Her numbers from the start were too small, too indifferently trained, and too weakly supplied with guns.  Soviet Union (1939-1940) After the Romanian troops had managed to bring the enemy to a halt at Moldavia's Gates, on the Eastern Carpathians, the Siret River and the Danube Delta alignment in cooperation with Russian military forces, Romania embarked on the reconstruction and strengthening of its combat capability during the first half of 1917 through multiple national efforts under highly complex international circumstances. Around this time, the Russians began sending numerous reinforcements to Moldavia to prevent an invasion of southern Russia. Germany agreed under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (Article 259) to renounce the benefits provided by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1918.[80].  Vichy France (1940-1944) On 23 January, they attempted to cross the marshes at Tulcea, but suffered heavy casualties to Romanian defenders on the northern bank and stopped. Radomir Putnik • Živojin Mišić • Stepa Stepanović • Petar Bojović • Pavle Jurišić Šturm;  France: Maurice Sarrail • Adolphe Guillaumat • Louis Franchet d'Espèrey;  United Kingdom: Bryan Mahon • George Milne;  Kingdom of Greece: Panagiotis Danglis, Morava Offensive • Ovče Pole Offensive • Kosovo Offensive (1915) • Battle of Krivolak, First battle of Doiran • Battle of Florina (Lerin) • Struma operation • Monastir Offensive, Second battle of Doiran • 2nd Crna Bend • Second battle of Monastir, Battle of Skra-di-Legen • Battle of Dobro Pole • Third battle of Doiran, Nikola Zhekov • Panteley Kiselov • Stefan Toshev • Todor Kantardzhiev • Ivan Kolev, Romania: [68][69], Aware of the complex strategic situation, the Romanian Command lent its military policy a clear, realistic orientation of committing the entire population to battle, trying to act efficiently in keeping with the national goals and in harmony with the large-scale operations worked out at the coalition level. Similar fights took place in the Bran-Câmpulung area, especially at Dragoslavele and Racoș. Overall command was now under Erich von Falkenhayn (recently replaced as German Chief of Staff), who started his own counterattack on 18 September. This created favorable conditions for a deep penetration into the defensive disposition and the annihilation of the enemy group. These events effectively ended Russian involvement in the war and left Romania isolated and surrounded by the Central Powers. [39] However, the rapid Romanian advance alarmed the Central Powers, and within weeks sizable reinforcements began arriving at the scene. The Romanian Second Army made a fighting retreat to the Siret river, which had originally been fortified against the Russians and was facing the wrong direction, but nevertheless would end up proving invaluable, protected as it was by the impassable Danube Delta to the southeast and a flank in the Carpathians in the northwest. For fighting between insurgent groups, see Civil war in Iraq (2006–07). The Germans were able to repair the oil fields around Ploieștiand by the end of the war had pumped a million tons of oil. Many novels have been written on this subject, including Liviu Rebreanu's Forest of the Hanged. On 23 August 1944, Romania left the Axis Powers and declared war on Germany, and allowed Soviet forces to cross its territory to reach Bulgaria.  Montenegro (1914-1916) Nevertheless, once she stood with her back to the wall, this little people, inexpert in war, made a stalwart resistance. The territorial spoils were divided in the Treaty of Bucharest and the Treaty of Constantinople. This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 08:58. In total, from 1916 to 1918, German seaplanes serving on the Romanian front were of three types: Friedrichshafen FF.33, Hansa-Brandenburg W.12 and Rumpler 6B. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Armistice of Focșani • Treaty of Bucharest • Protocol of Berlin, The counteroffensive of the Central Powers, Министерство на войната, Щаб на войската, Българската армия в Световната война 1915 - 1918, Vol. Историко-библиографски справочник, Добрич 2006, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_Bulgaria_and_Romania In response, the Romanian Command prepared a counter-offensive known under the name of the Battle of the Argeş (part of the Battle of Bucharest) and designated the recently promoted General Constantin Prezan to lead it. It stayed on the south side of the Danube river and headed towards Constanța. [70] The decisive effort was to be made by the Romanian First Army. Within this framework, debates on some laws envisaging structural transformations (primarily the agrarian reform to re-allocate land to peasants and the introduction of universal suffrage) responded to popular demands of the citizenry and contributed to the morale of the soldiers in the front lines. F.A.  Haiti (1941-1945) Samoilă Mârza, a private in the Austro-Hungarian Army, reached as far as Riga and became the first Romanian war photographer. Emirate of Jabal Shammar Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913. The political life in unoccupied territory adopted a fundamental goal to achieve national consensus to find the means to conclude a successful liberation war. Comparison with Soviet occupation of Bulgaria. [59][60] Fighting also ceased in the Carpathian passes, also owing to unfavorable weather. The plan envisaged the checking of the advance of the German Ninth Army from the north and north-west, as well as the encirclement and annihilation of the German-Bulgarian-Turkish units deployed south-east of Bucharest. Senussi (1915-1917), Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (1917-1918)  Tuvan People's Republic (1941-1944), Supply only This attack caught the Romanians by surprise and Mackensen's army was able to advance rapidly towards Bucharest against very weak resistance. 181 (in Bulgarian, Министерство на войната (1943), pp. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. I, trans. As such, they’re not allowed to attack each other; if they do, at least one of them would be forced to leave the alliance. The Romanian warship counterattacked, damaging the submarine's periscope and conning tower and forcing her to retreat. Bernd Langensiepen, Ahmet Güleryüz and James Cooper.  Denmark (1940) Grim fights erupted in the Prahova Valley, where occupation of the locality of Predeal was one of the major aims pursued by the Central Powers. Brazil (1942-1945) First World War Emirate of Nejd and Hasa [33], The ethnic Romanians in Austria-Hungary entered the war from the very beginning, with hundreds of thousands of Transylvanian and Bukovinian Romanians being mobilized throughout the war. Poland (1939-1945) [48] The Central Powers succeeded in taking the strategic initiative in Transylvania by concentrating significant military forces rapidly brought in from the other theatres of operations in Europe and exploiting a quick shift of Romanian units to the battlefront in Dobruja. 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