feared that its military forces were unstoppable. Executive Order 9066 authorized the removal of all persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast; however, it was signed before there were any facilities completed to house the displaced Japanese Americans. We must realize, as Henry Emerson Fosdick so wisely said, 'Liberty is always dangerous, but it is the safest thing we have. | California lawmakers on Thursday unanimously passed a resolution formally apologizing for its role in sending 120,000 Japanese Americans to internment camps … 73 min 1993. In 1943, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes wrote "the situation in at least some of the Japanese internment camps is bad and is becoming worse rapidly. "[233], In subsequent decades, debate has arisen over the terminology used to refer to camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the US government during the war. The attack launched the United States fully into the two theaters of the world war. A conference on February 17 of Secretary Stimson with assistant secretary John J. McCloy, Provost Marshal General Allen W. Gullion, Deputy chief of Army Ground Forces Mark W. Clark, and Colonel Bendetsen decided that General DeWitt should be directed to commence evacuations "to the extent he deemed necessary" to protect vital installations. They later sued to gain relief and additional compensation for some items of dispute. Neither the Army, not the War Relocation Authority relish the idea of taking men, women and children from their homes, their shops and their farms. They have been as well fed as the Army and as well as or better housed. Max von Sydow, The vast majority of Japanese Americans and their immigrant parents in Hawaii were not interned because the government had already declared martial law in Hawaii and this allowed it to significantly reduce the supposed risk of espionage and sabotage by residents of Japanese ancestry. The United States originally intended to trade these Latin American internees as part of a hostage exchange program with Japan and other Axis nations. Charlton Heston, Approximately 7,000 German Americans and 3,000 Italian Americans from Hawai'i and the U.S. mainland were interned in DOJ camps, along with 500 German seamen already in custody after being rescued from the SS Columbus in 1939. America declared war against Japan the next day. Address: 369 East First Street, Los Angeles, California 90012 Short, Family, History, The creators of Visas and Virtue (1997) (1997 Academy Award Winner, Best Live Action Short Film) bring you another important historical narrative. By the time the Act was passed, the IRS had already destroyed most of the internees' 1939–42 tax records. Allowing them to continue their education, however, did not erase the potential for traumatic experiences during their overall time in the camps. HR-77 Relative to World War II Japanese American concentration camps. Director: [68] Steven Okazaki One of the great ironies of the Second World War was America’s forced confinement of more than 120,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry. [228], During World War II, the camps were referred to both as relocation centers and concentration camps by government officials and in the press. The best known facilities were the military-run Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA) Assembly Centers and the civilian-run War Relocation Authority (WRA) Relocation Centers, which are generally (but unofficially) referred to as "internment camps". 1 consisted of the southern half of Arizona and the western half of California, Oregon, and Washington, as well as all of California south of Los Angeles. Reeve Carney, Votes: Box 1587, San Mateo, California 94401. The Imperial Japanese Navy had designated the Hawaiian island of Niihau as an uninhabited island for damaged aircraft to land and await rescue. [244][245], The New York Times published an unsigned editorial supporting the use of "concentration camp" in the exhibit. View WW2 Japanese Internment.docx from ART 183 at Miami University. Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest of society let it happen. Akira Fukunaga, Not Rated [129], The rhetorical curriculum of the schools was based mostly on the study of "the democratic ideal and to discover its many implications". [168] Satoshi Ito, an internment camp internee, reinforces the idea of the immigrants' children striving to demonstrate their patriotism to the United States. Stars: [303] The Army had destroyed documents in an effort to hide alterations that had been made to the report to reduce their racist content. Another Hawaiian camp was the Honouliuli Internment Camp, near Ewa, on the southwestern shore of Oahu; it was opened in 1943 to replace the Sand Island camp. | [55], On March 2, 1942, General John DeWitt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command, publicly announced the creation of two military restricted zones. | A Los Angeles Times editorial dated February 28, 1942, stated that: As to a considerable number of Japanese, no matter where born, there is unfortunately no doubt whatever. [217] President Ford signed a proclamation formally terminating Executive Order 9066 and apologized for the internment, stating: "We now know what we should have known then—not only was that evacuation wrong but Japanese-Americans were and are loyal Americans. 131 min Peruse the bookshelf for works of fiction and nonfiction", "Book Review: Camp Nine by Vivienne Schiffer", "They Called Us Enemy: Expanded Edition by George Takei, Justin Eisinger, Steven Scott, Harmony Becker: 9781603094702 | PenguinRandomHouse.com: Books", "George Takei, Ocean Vuong win American Book Awards", "It's Time to Applaud Luke virtuoso Shimabukuro, review of Peace Love Ukulele", https://www.npr.org/2019/05/23/724983774/first-listen-kishi-bashi-omoiyari?t=1582632027406, Take What You Can Carry (Scientist Dub One), Play It Forward: The Multiplicity Of Mia Doi Todd. Despite logistical challenges facing the floundering prisoner exchange program, deportation plans were moving ahead. Phil Karlson [249], On July 7, 2012, at its annual convention, the National Council of the Japanese American Citizens League unanimously ratified the Power of Words Handbook, calling for the use of "...truthful and accurate terms, and retiring the misleading euphemisms created by the government to cover up the denial of Constitutional and human rights, the force, oppressive conditions, and racism against 120,000 innocent people of Japanese ancestry locked up in America's World War II concentration camps. Those who had not left by each camp's close date were forcibly removed and sent back to the West Coast. Documentary, Short, Biography, Silence - the stuff of assumptions and confusion - is a legacy inherited by many grandchildren of Japanese Americans interned during WWII. Nearly 75 years ago, 120,000 Americans of Japanese descent were stripped of their rights and property under the guise of national security. (At Heart Mountain, for example, Japanese American doctors received $19/month compared to white nurses' $150/month. The Chinese had a major deficiency in tanks for much of the war and those that they did have were often very poorly maintained and usually outnumbered by the Japanese. Dennis Quaid, For Japanese Americans, there are certain parallels that were apparent between [the attacks on Pearl Harbor] and 9/11. We do. On June 29, 2017, in Chicago, Illinois, the Alphawood Gallery, in partnership with the Japanese American Service Committee, opened "Then They Came for Me", the largest exhibition on Japanese American incarceration and postwar resettlement ever to open in the Midwest. This Memorial and the internment sites are powerful reminders that stereotyping, discrimination, hatred and racism have no place in this country."[261]. "Japanese Americans." Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans during World War II. [198] He started a legal battle that would not be resolved until 1953, when, after working as undocumented immigrants for almost ten years, those Japanese Peruvians remaining in the U.S. were finally offered citizenship.[102][191]. The "Statement of United States Citizen of Japanese Ancestry" was initially given only to Nisei who were eligible for service (or would have been, but for the 4-C classification imposed on them at the start of the war). Stars: The movement's first success was in 1976, when President Gerald Ford proclaimed that the internment was "wrong", and a "national mistake" which "shall never again be repeated". "SEE IT: George Carlin's mind-blowing takes on American politics in honor of the comedian's death eight years ago", "For Japanese Americans, 'The Terror' is personal", "Supreme Court finally condemns 1944 decision that allowed Japanese internment during World War II", "Supreme Court finally rejects infamous Korematsu decision on Japanese-American internment", "Korematsu, Notorious Supreme Court Ruling on Japanese Internment, Is Finally Tossed Out", "5. Like many white American farmers, the white businessmen of Hawaii had their own motives for determining how to deal with the Japanese Americans, but they opposed internment. . When Japanese Americans were sent to the camps they could only take a few items with them and while incarcerated they could only work for meager jobs with a small monthly salary of $12-$19. [104] Since Japanese Americans living in the restricted zone were considered too dangerous to conduct their daily business, the military decided it had to house them in temporary centers until the relocation centers were completed. Some believed that renouncing their loyalty to Japan would suggest that they had at some point been loyal to Japan and disloyal to the United States. DeWitt's final report stated that, because of their race, it was impossible to determine the loyalty of Japanese Americans, thus necessitating internment. Lynn O'Donnell, The completed October 1943 trade took place at the height of the Enemy Alien Deportation Program. Director: John Korty | Stars: Yuki Shimoda, Nobu McCarthy, Dori Takeshita, Akemi Kikumura. [137] In January 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued what came to be known as the "Green Light Letter" to MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, which urged him to continue playing Major League Baseball games despite the ongoing war. Aaron Yoo, View WW2 Japanese Internment.docx from ART 183 at Miami University. Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions forced assembly center infirmaries to prioritize inoculations over general care, obstetrics, and surgeries; at Manzanar, for example, hospital staff performed over 40,000 immunizations against typhoid and smallpox. Finally, the monument presents the Japanese American experience as a symbol for all peoples.[262]. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, seven-year-old Jeanne Wakatsuki, her family and 11,000 other Americans of Japanese descent and their immigrant parents are imprisoned in the internment camp Manzanar in California. When his adoptive Japanese-American family is sent to Manzanar after Pearl Harbor, a young Chicano enlists in the marines to become a hero in the Battle of Saipan. . [102] Arriving in Marmagao on October 16, 1943, the Gripsholm's passengers disembarked and then boarded the Japanese ship Teia Maru. Chris Tashima The spartan facilities met international laws, but left much to be desired. At the height of its attendance, the Rohwer Camp of Arkansas reached 2,339, with only 45 certified teachers. [67] As a result, only 1,200[11] to 1,800 Japanese Americans in Hawaii were interned. Stars: [64], State politicians joined the bandwagon that was embraced by Leland Ford of Los Angeles, who demanded that "all Japanese, whether citizens or not, be placed in [inland] concentration camps. Some scholars have criticized or dismissed Lowman's reasoning that "disloyalty" among some individual Japanese Americans could legitimize "incarcerating 120,000 people, including infants, the elderly, and the mentally ill". [226] On January 30, 2011, California first observed an annual "Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution", the first such commemoration for an Asian American in the United States. Having been alerted to the Court's decision, the Roosevelt administration issued Public Proclamation No. Ellis Island Exhibit Prompts a Debate", "American Jewish Committee, Japanese American National Museum Issue Joint Statement About Ellis Island Exhibit Set To Open April 3", "NYC; Defending Jews' Lexicon Of Anguish", "For Japanese Americans, the debate over what counts as a 'concentration camp' is familiar", "JACL Ratifies Power Of Words Handbook: What Are The Next Steps? Tetsu Asato, 28 min [79], The controversial conclusions drawn by Lowman were defended by conservative commentator Michelle Malkin in her book In Defense of Internment; The Case for 'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror (2004). [194] A thorough examination of the documents shows at least one trade occurred. [174] Brazil also restricted its Japanese Brazilian population. After the voluntary evacuation program failed to result in many families leaving the exclusion zone, the military took charge of the now-mandatory evacuation. Japanese Americans contributed to the agriculture of California and other Western states, by introducing irrigation methods that enabled the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and flowers on previously inhospitable land. | While the Japanese American soldiers trained at the Presidio MIS Language School, anti-Japanese sentiment throughout the United States grew after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and war hysteria escalated. It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. | [80] Malkin's defense of Japanese internment was due in part to reaction to what she describes as the "constant alarmism from Bush-bashers who argue that every counter-terror measure in America is tantamount to the internment". Star: Question 28: Will you swear unqualified allegiances to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any and all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or other foreign government, power or organization? A Los Angeles Times editorial dated February 19, 1942, stated that: Since Dec. 7 there has existed an obvious menace to the safety of this region in the presence of potential saboteurs and fifth columnists close to oil refineries and storage tanks, airplane factories, Army posts, Navy facilities, ports and communications systems. Agents in the Department of Justice's Special Defense Unit classified the subjects into three groups: A, B, and C, with A being "most dangerous", and C being "possibly dangerous". Concentrated largely in rural areas of Central California, there were dozens of reports of gunshots, fires, and explosions aimed at Japanese American homes, businesses, and places of worship, in addition to non-violent crimes like vandalism and the defacing of Japanese graves. In 1941, more than 100,000 people of Japanese ancestry – two-thirds of whom were natural-born citizens of the United States – … Although their families were treated unjustly in this way, more than 33,000 Japanese Americans served in the military with distinction. Brooks, Roy L. "Japanese American Internment and Relocation." Sometimes, we are resigned to it, but when we see the barbed wire fences and the sentry tower with floodlights, it gives us a feeling of being prisoners in a "concentration camp." Many internees lost irreplaceable personal property due to restrictions that prohibited them from taking more than they could carry into the camps. Print, p. 378. [85], A letter by General DeWitt and Colonel Bendetsen expressing racist bias against Japanese Americans was circulated and then hastily redacted in 1943–1944. Action, Drama, History. In the event of a Japanese invasion of the American mainland, Japanese Americans were feared as a security risk. Those who were interned in Topaz, Minidoka, and Jerome experienced outbreaks of dysentery. Eventually such zones would include parts of both the East and West Coasts, totaling about 1/3 of the country by area. Afterward, the government passed the Renunciation Act of 1944, a law that made it possible for Nisei and Kibei to renounce their American citizenship. This is the shocking moment TWO WHEELS came loose from a truck as it d.. This camp was prepared in advance of the war's outbreak. In early 1943, War Relocation Authority officials, working with the War Department and the Office of Naval Intelligence,[144] circulated a questionnaire in an attempt to determine the loyalty of incarcerated Nisei men they hoped to recruit into military service. Boston: Little, Brown 1993. [135] To build patriotism, the Japanese language was banned in the camps, forcing the children to learn English and then go home and teach their Issei parents.[136]. In effect, the two rulings held that, while the eviction of American citizens in the name of military necessity was legal, the subsequent incarceration was not—thus paving the way for their release. Shizuko Hoshi, Votes: Print, p. 384. Director: [123], Flag of allegiance pledge at Raphael Weill Public School, Geary and Buchanan Streets, San Francisco, April 20, 1942, Teacher Lily Namimoto and her second grade class, Fourth grade class in barracks 3-4-B at Rohwer, General office in the high school at Rohwer, Senior physics class in barracks 11-F at the temporary high school quarters, A part of the brass section of the high school band, Of the 110,000 Japanese Americans detained by the United States government during World War II, 30,000 were children. While most camp inmates simply answered "yes" to both questions, several thousand — 17 percent of the total respondents, 20 percent of the Nisei[145] — gave negative or qualified replies out of confusion, fear or anger at the wording and implications of the questionnaire. The Immigration Act of 1924, following the example of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, effectively banned all immigration from Japan and other "undesirable" Asian countries. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt declared that the day of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, would live in infamy. Japanese American internment - Japanese American internment - Life in the camps: Conditions at the camps were spare. During WWII, 120,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into camps, a government action that still haunts victims and their descendants 21 the day before the Korematsu and Endo rulings were made public, on December 17, 1944, rescinding the exclusion orders and declaring that Japanese Americans could return to the West Coast the next month. 9066. [110] Within nine months, the WRA had opened ten facilities in seven states, and transferred over 100,000 people from the WCCA facilities. There are documented instances of guards shooting internees who reportedly attempted to walk outside the fences. DeWitt's proclamation informed Japanese Americans they would be required to leave Military Area 1, but stated that they could remain in the second restricted zone. Fred Mullen, "DeWitt Attitude on Japs Upsets Plans,", Testimony of John L. DeWitt, April 13, 1943, House Naval Affairs Subcommittee to Investigate Congested Areas, Part 3, pp. "[49] This manifesto further argued that all people of Japanese heritage were loyal subjects of the Emperor of Japan; the manifesto contended that Japanese language schools were bastions of racism which advanced doctrines of Japanese racial superiority. [202][203] The camps remained open for residents who were not ready to return (mostly elderly Issei and families with young children), but the WRA pressured stragglers to leave by gradually eliminating services in camp. As the Japanese-American population continued to grow, European Americans who lived on the West Coast resisted the arrival of this new ethnic group, fearing competition and making the exaggerated claim that hordes of Asians were keen to take over white-owned farmland and businesses. 132 min The Internment of Japanese-Americans in WW2 11 key events at a time when America turned against its own citizens By Rachel Segal. [139] Branch Rickey, who would be responsible for bringing Jackie Robinson into Major League Baseball in 1947, sent a letter to all of the WRA camps expressing interest in scouting some of the Nisei players. The camps were surrounded by barbed-wire fences patrolled by armed guards who had … Of the 20,000 Japanese Americans who served in the Army during World War II,[158] "many Japanese-American soldiers had gone to war to fight racism at home"[166] and they were "proving with their blood, their limbs, and their bodies that they were truly American". [150] Those persons who stayed in the US faced discrimination from the Japanese-American community, both during and after the war, for having made that choice of renunciation. Japanese Americans removed from their Los Angeles homes line up at Manzanar Relocation Center, in California, on March 23, 1942, for their first meal after arrival at the camp. Many books and novels were written by and about Japanese Americans' experience during and after their residence in concentration camps among them can be mentioned the followed: Several significant legal decisions arose out of Japanese-American internment, relating to the powers of the government to detain citizens in wartime. [191], The first group of Japanese Latin Americans arrived in San Francisco on April 20, 1942, on board the Etolin along with 360 ethnic Germans and 14 ethnic Italians from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Overnight, Japanese Americans found their lives changed. National Park Service; Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites. [26][304], These new court decisions rested on a series of documents recovered from the National Archives showing that the government had altered, suppressed, and withheld important and relevant information from the Supreme Court, including the Final Report by General DeWitt justifying the internment program. "[49] These individuals saw internment as a convenient means of uprooting their Japanese-American competitors. Internees of Japanese descent were first sent to one of 17 temporary "Civilian Assembly Centers", where most awaited transfer to more permanent relocation centers being constructed by the newly formed War Relocation Authority (WRA). The dramatic impact W.W.II had in the home-front as U.S. Japanese families were uprooted from their daily lives and placed in internment camps in western States in the early 1940s. [22], The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by providing specific individual census data on Japanese Americans. In Japanese Americans, sociologist Harry Kitano observed that Japanese Americans developed a congruent Japanese culture within the framework of American society. A certain care needs to be exercised." And we do not want them back when the war ends, either.[62]. 2 covered the rest of those states. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. Military Area No. A white Californian girl and her new Japanese-American husband must keep their recent marriage secret in the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Instead, these individuals gained passage of legislation to retain in freedom the nearly 150,000 Japanese Americans who would have been otherwise sent to internment camps within Hawaii. When the WRA began to allow some Japanese Americans to leave camp, many Nikkei medical professionals resettled outside camp. [154][156] Many of the deportees were Issei (first generation) or Kibei, who often had difficulty with English and often did not understand the questions they were asked. [183] Among the small number interned were community leaders and prominent politicians, including territorial legislators Thomas Sakakihara and Sanji Abe. Documentary, Short, Biography, The story of Estelle Ishigo, one of the few Caucasians interned with Japanese Americans during World War II. George Aratani, | And when the Japanese were removed from their farm jobs, the United States Employment Service issued a call for Chinese Americans to replace them. See, "The War Relocation Authority and The Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II: 1948 Chronology,". [68] By comparison, Idaho governor Chase A. Clark, in a Lions Club speech on May 22, 1942, said "Japs live like rats, breed like rats and act like rats. [179] Also, Japanese Americans comprised over 35% of the territory's population, with 157,905 of Hawaii's 423,330 inhabitants at the time of the 1940 census,[180] making them the largest ethnic group at that time; detaining so many people would have been enormously challenging in terms of logistics. [246] An article quoted Jonathan Mark, a columnist for The Jewish Week, who wrote, "Can no one else speak of slavery, gas, trains, camps? 1939 – ca. subjective timeline. "[49], Incarceration of Japanese Americans, who provided critical agricultural labor on the West Coast, created a labor shortage which was exacerbated by the induction of many white American laborers into the Armed Forces. ", Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Japanese-American life before World War II, full-scale invasion of Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States, Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West, Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526 and 2527, Pacific International Livestock Exposition, Nisei segregated field artillery battalion, liberated at least one of the satellite labor camps, Japanese-American life after World War II, Toshio Kobata, 58, and Hirota Isomura, 59, Japanese American redress and court cases, Go for Broke Monument § Quotations below the main inscription, Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution, Bainbridge Island Japanese American Exclusion Memorial, National Register of Historic Places listing in Utah, Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II, Films about the internment of Japanese Americans, List of feature films about the Japanese American internment, List of documentary films about the Japanese American internment, Books about the internment of Japanese Americans, Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APLA)-Literature, Propaganda for Japanese-American internment, Japanese American service in World War II, List of Japanese American servicemen and servicewomen in World War II, Japanese Evacuation and Resettlement Study, List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in the United States, "Japanese American Internment » Tule Lake", "Behind Barbed Wire: Remembering America's Largest Internment Camp", "Japanese Americans in World War II: National historic landmarks theme study", "WWII Propaganda: The Influence of Racism – Artifacts Journal – University of Missouri", "Confirmed: The U.S. Census Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese-Americans in WW II", public domain material from this U.S government document, "Wwii Reparations: Japanese-American Internees", "What Happened After the Attack of Pearl Harbor", "Roosevelt ushers in Japanese-American internment – Jan 14, 1942", "Thinning, Topping, and Loading: Japanese Americans and Beet Sugar in World War II", "Charles Sprague's Internal Wars: Civil Liberties Challenges of an Editor and Governor", "In his own words: R.C. Stars: The practice of women marrying by proxy and immigrating to the U.S. resulted in a large increase in the number of "picture brides."[33][34]. [15], Roosevelt authorized Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded. In addition to the usual generational differences, Issei men had been typically ten to fifteen years older than their wives, making them significantly older than the younger children of their often large families. The frequent dust storms of the high desert locations led to increased cases of asthma and coccidioidomycosis, while the swampy, mosquito-infested Arkansas camps exposed residents to malaria, all of which were treated in camp. Myer served as Director of the WRA until the centers were closed. Some 180,000 went to the U.S. mainland, with the majority settling on the West Coast and establishing farms or small businesses. He issued another formal apology from the U.S. government on December 7, 1991, on the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, saying: In remembering, it is important to come to grips with the past. Retrieved", "Alien Enemy Detention Facility, Crystal City, Texas", "Docket No. | concentration camps. [35] Several laws and treaties attempting to slow immigration from Japan were introduced beginning in the late 19th century. Telephone: (800) 874-2242. [101][102][189][190] Most of these internees, approximately 1,800, came from Peru. As the fourth and fifth generations of Japanese Americans have come of age, they socialize within the larger population. Classes were held every afternoon and evening. [140] 2,572 In Ozawa, the court established that peoples defined as 'white' were specifically of Caucasian descent; In Yasui and Hirabayashi, the court upheld the constitutionality of curfews based on Japanese ancestry; in Korematsu, the court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion order. Over 81,800 people qualified by 1998 and $ 1.6 billion was distributed among them. 94... When temperatures rose and the Japanese-American community for economic and social advancement to the West.... Internees ' 1939–42 tax records Brazil also restricted its Japanese Brazilian population on locked! White American farmers admitted that their claims were valid the Japanese-Americans during WW2 Gibson Campbell. [ 78 ] According to the government operated Several Different types of camps holding Japanese Americans the... Camps in desolate parts of both the East and West Coasts, totaling about 1/3 of security. Result, he is still a Japanese than any evidence of malfeasance plans stalled formed! 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