PLoS One. Connectedness It also isn’t dependent on circumstances. Resilience is a demonstrable outcome of an organization’s capability to cope with uncertainty and change in an often volatile environment. 735) PubMed PMID: 19277439. (pg. annual reports or educational handouts). 268), Disaster mitigation beings long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster…The resilience of a community overwhelmed by a disastrous situation may be measured in the difference between a response with a sense of hope, community pride, and resourcefulness and one filled with despair, hopelessness, and blame. PubMed PMID: 16512061. (41) PMCID: PMC3893382. The numbers related to the first search with publication cutoff date of October 2013 for scientific peer-reviewed articles and January 2014 for grey-literature are listed with n1, and n2 is numbers related to the second search with publication cutoff date of May 2015. (64) Health services X CHAPTER TWO. 2013 (ahead-of-print):1-28. Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockström J. X Developing the ‘PEOPLES’resilience framework for defining and measuring disaster resilience at the community scale. 2003 2003/11/01;19(4):733-52. Recent efforts by the United Nations have led to the creation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which is built upon the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. The sustained ability of a community to withstand and recover from adversity (e.g., economic stress, pandemic influenza, manmade or natural disasters) (pg. (pg. Learning from crisis: Lessons in human and information infrastructure from the world trade center response. These characteristics are functioning well while under stress, successful adaptation, self-reliance, and social capacity…Resilient communities also share the importance of social support systems, such as neighbourhoods, family and kinship networks, social cohesion, mutual interest groups, and mutual self-help groups. For example, Kennedy and colleagues12 emphasised the importance of having a community assess and understand their own vulnerabilities. These characteristics are important for differentiating conceptual and measurement aspects of community resilience from resilience at the individual and household levels. Psychological Science. Community resilience and wellness for the children exposed to Hurricane Katrina. UN System Task Team. 2008 Mar;41(1-2):127-50. 72 hours: Is your family prepared? Resilience refers to the capacity of an individual, household, population group or system to anticipate, absorb, and recover from hazards and/or effects of climate change and other shocks and stresses without compromising (and potentially enhancing) long-term prospects. Community Resilience: Conceptual Framework and Measurement iii . PubMed PMID: 18157631. psychological health (22, 23); psychological functioning (25, 27); mental health (15, 55); coping (64); mental health wellness, trauma, PTSS and depression (66); PTSD (112); clinical distress (80)) Despite this, updating the literature search did not alter the fundamental structure of our results although it did add more examples for the main elements found in the review. 2015 [Available from: http://www.readynh.gov/index.htm. When disasters hit, casualties with physical injuries must be treated quickly and with a high quality of care. (pg. 9) Castleden and colleagues55 proposed integrating such steps into a detailed vulnerability analysis and subsequent community awareness initiatives. 201-202), Supplementary Material Table 2. 63), [Provides various definitions across disciplines and offer 10 defining characteristics of resilient systems as follows]1) a high level of diversity in community 2) effective governance and institutions which may enhance community cohesion 3) the inevitable existence of uncertainty and change is accepted 4) there is community involvement and the appropriation of local knowledge in any resilience-building projects; communities enjoy ownership of natural resources; communities have a voice in relevant policy processes 5) preparedness activities aim not at resisting change but preparing to live with it 6) high degree of social and economic equity exists in systems 7) importance of social values and structures is acknowledged because association between individuals can have a positive impact on cooperation in a community which may lead to more equal access to natural resources and greater resilience 8) non-equilibrium dynamics of a system are acknowledged and building resilience should not work with idea of restoring equilibrium 9) continual and effective learning is important 10) resilience systems take a cross-scalar perspective of events and occurrences. 2004 Dec;28(4):388-404. (57) 452) [same definition as (54)] (pg. adequate resourcing (18, 109); harnessing local resources (57); awareness and use of resources in the community (72); available resources (100); community-level resources (112); resource management (61); distribution of tangible resources (48 , 69, 70); social resources (70, 91, 94); resources (15, 17, 19, 31, 92, 113); natural and economic resources (61); access to money and other financial instruments and assets (70); diverse economic resources (65); physical infrastructure (59); food services and distribution (30); physical and economic resources effectively used to aid recovery (53)), Post-disaster economic development(e.g. What Do We Mean by ‘Community Resilience’? Post-disaster economic development(e.g. ], California Department of Public Health. As described in the current online CART manual, the CART Assessment Survey is based on a four-factor model of community resilience characterized by four interrelated CART domains: (a) Connection and Caring (including relatedness, participation, shared values, support and nurturance, equity, justice, hope, and diversity); (b) Resources (including natural, physical, information, human, social, and financial resources); (c) Transformative Potential (deriving from the ability of communities to frame collective experiences, collect and analyse relevant data, assess community performance, and build skills); and (d) Disaster Management (addressing prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery). 2015 Jan;124:162-70. 41) (pg.255), Community disaster resilience (CDR)-the ability of a community to survive and thrive in the face of uncertainty-is the foundation of rural life. In this analysis, the components identified those characteristics of households, such as avoidance of negative coping strategies, capacity for disaster management at the community level, and access to social capital, that are important factors in resilience with respect to food security. 2013. Residents of larger communities were more likely to agree that their community looks at its successes and failures to learn from the past, keeps people informed about relevant issues, actively prepares for disasters, and trusts local leaders to respond to emergency situations. Physical Health 2012 2008 Feb;32(1):161-73. Step 4. English. Similarly, risk assessment was believed to help with preparedness61. (pg. Beyond the resilience of individuals or individual organisations, your community will prove resilient in the event of a severe emergency or disaster when members of the population are connected to one another and work together, so that they are able to: 1) function and sustain critical systems, even under stress; 2) adapt to changes in the physical, social or economic environment; 3) be self-reliant if external resources are limited or cut off; 4) learn from experience to improve over time (pg. 2), Ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions [same definition as (9)](pg. X X This is an important limitation given that the resilience of individuals is inextricably linked to the resilience of the communities in which they live (pg. It is hoped to include these in future editions. Preparedness Community resilience was therefore found to be an amorphous concept that was understood and applied differently by different research groups. Figure 1 shows the results of the search strategy. a broad collection of response-related abilities). In general, resilient people have many of the following characteristics: Locus of Control Focus on how you, as opposed to external forces, can control the outcome of … 2 Community Based Resilience Analysis (CoBRA) of local interventions in attaining these resilience characteristics. Resources 2006;30(4):434-50. 2015 Qualitative Research in Psychology. (pg. This can be achieved through proactive investments to rebuild the economy74. Step 3. X PubMed PMID: 23350222. (81) community networks and relationships(16, 58); connectedness (17, 31, 60, 92, 113); social networks and capital (16, 54, 61, 103, 104); self-sufficiency (22, 23); social or cross-community links(94, 99); social relationships (91, 97); connection and caring (71, 113); social and/or cultural networks (24, 61, 78); social and cultural capital (59); partnership and activating networks (110); neighbourhoods, family and kinship networks (8, 63, 89))Cohesion(e.g. Resilience is thus a product of an organization’s capabilities interacting with its environment (pg. Abstract. Further investigation is needed in order to determine whether these identified elements are attributes or processes which make a community resilient to a disaster. Sixth, the results of this review are based on the original authors’ definitions which were broken down and grouped by similar concepts through an inductive thematic analysis. Community Resilience Index(52,114) knowledge of self-reliance, self-help, and self-sufficiency (22); self-reliance (96); recovery mechanisms (69); sense of coherence (102); capacity for generative experiences and positive emotions (25, 27); self-efficacy (80); community competence, collective efficacy, empowerment (52, 66); individual believes that s/he has the resources needed to deal with situations (102))Training and education(e.g. Step 2. (60) X PubMed PMID: 2013-15895-002. knowledge and education (20, 61, 70); community education and training(22-24, 70); continual and effective learning (62); learn in response to the event (8, 63); knowledge transfer (19); risk awareness training (111); social, lifestyle and community competence (54, 59, 67, 82); learning (education, knowledge, risk awareness based on previous experience) (55); practice (24)) Fu C, Leoutsakos JM, Underwood C. Moderating effects of a postdisaster intervention on risk and resilience factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in Chinese children. 1998;26(5):457-72. (74) 2013 3. Pfefferbaum RL, Pfefferbaum B, Nitiéma P, Houston JB, Van Horn RL. Chandra A, Williams M, Plough A, Stayton A, Wells KB, Horta M, et al. psychological health (22, 23); psychological functioning (25, 27); mental health (15, 55); coping (64); mental health wellness, trauma, PTSS and depression (66); PTSD (112); clinical distress (80)), Infrastructure and services(e.g. Defined as the information, education and experience acquired in relation to a disaster, factual knowledge included specific learned information related to a disaster or disaster preparedness, such as knowledge about first aid55, and other issues translatable to disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery61. From the second search, 18 publications were added along with their respective definitions of community resilience. (pg. However, many of these elements are broad, overlapping in practice and need further clarification. Southern medical journal. (80) Local knowledge: The effects of a disaster, whether short-term or long-term, could be mitigated if a community understands its existing vulnerabilities. Their approach focused on the interactions between the strategic communication processes, such as community competence and community narratives; community relationships, such as social capital and media relations; community attributes, such as equality and diversity; and community systems and resources, such as communication infrastructure and traditional and social media. A sense of community empowerment can be an additional output of public involvement in governance and leadership24, as can increased trust in risk and crisis communication stemming from local leaders. 1181) (82) 2001 2001/09/01;24(2):157-69. 13) London, UK: Department for International Development; 2011. p. 20. Resilience AND disaster AND (definition or framework). Dunfermline, UK: Carnegie UK Trust; 2011. As applied to disasters, resilience entails the ability of a community to rebound following a hurricane, earthquake, or other disturbance (pg. Planning and mitigation Resilience can be defined as an attribute (e.g., ability, capacity), a process, and/or an outcome associated with successful adaption to, and recovery from adversity. Resilience in children threatened by extreme adversity: Frameworks for research, practice, and translational synergy. Community Characteristics and Improving Community Resilience. Social capital and community resilience. 6) Resilient communities are those with well-developed networks and strong social relations as well as norms of trust and reciprocity [Inferred from (98) on pg. Masten AS, Narayan AJ. This is an important limitation given that the resilience of individuals is inextricably linked to the resilience of the communities in which they live (pg. 73-74) For the population who have not bounced back and continue to have problems well after the disaster event, recovery is defined as the ability of an individual, a group, an organization, or even an entire population to restore their adaptability and function, both psychologically and behaviourally, in the wake of significant clinical distress, impairment, or dysfunction subsequent to critical incidents such terrorism, acts of violence and disasters. 2004 Governance and leadership Background: Government, industry and charitable organisations have an increasing focus on programs intended to support community resilience to disasters. 2003;79(2/3):105-8. This led us to identify nine elements. This figure shows the method of selecting a publication to be reviewed. Argonne, IL: U.S. Department of Energy; 2012. Comprehensive child-oriented preventive resilience program in israel based on lessons learned from communities exposed to war, terrorism and disaster. Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Salisbury, United Kingdom. risk communication (22, 23, 57); information resilience (107); risk awareness (55); public risk communications (24); risk information and awareness (65); communications infrastructure and technology (14); coordinated communication system or network (17))Crisis communication(e.g. This new focus on “community resilience” looks at how people overcome stress, trauma and other life challenges by drawing from the social and cultural networks and practices that constitute communities. Ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions [same definition as (9)](pg. 251) Mental Health 2012 Rego A, Mehta S. Opportunities and challenges in risk resilient recovery. This figure shows the method of selecting a publication to be reviewed. Getting actionable about community resilience: the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience project. (pg. Torrens Resilience Institute; 2012. p. 28. X PubMed PMID: 19189606. How can we advance from this apparent Catch-22? ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Identifying characteristics of resilient urban communities through a case study method. (pg. As applied to disasters, resilience entails the ability of a community to rebound following a hurricane, earthquake, or other disturbance (pg. Journal of Community Psychology. or (framework or taxonomy) In the meantime, the use of the phrase community resilience, and attempts to define the concept, may be unhelpful if it obscures the importance of these individual elements. 3) Epub 2009/02/05. Rogers MB, Jones E, Krieger K, Amlôt R. Responding to emergencies involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) hazards: Information for members of the public. Effective communication, whether risk or crisiscommunication, was proposed as important in helping a community to articulate, coordinate and understand the risk and impact of disasters. 106), In the context of hazards, the concept spans both pre-event measures that seek to prevent disaster-related damage and post-event strategies designed to cope with and minimize disaster impacts (pg. Child & Youth Care Forum; 2013: Springer. Additionally, public involvement may involve having local leaders who understand and represent a community’s uniqueness and aspirations. Resilien* AND (defin* or fram*) AND (disaster or flood* or volcano or hurricane? (55) There is an evolving definition when it comes to resilience. X Factual knowledge base 14), Community resilience refers to the capacity or ability of a community to anticipate risk, prepare for, respond to and recover rapidly through survival, adaptability, evolution and growth from experiencing disasters and their impacts (pg.4), The capacity of a community to change and develop following the challenge (pg. It is proposed that mediating structures (e.g., schools, peer groups, family) and activity settings moderate the impact of oppressive systems and provide contexts for resilience and consciousness raising (pg. Defining community resilience (resilience in community setting) in regards to a disaster. (pg. (pg. 2013 Hope(e.g. ], United Nations. X Community size played a role in some of these perceptions. 48) X 2007 2004 February 1, 2004;22(1):52-66. We hope that you will be excited at the opportunity to engage with this resource, and learn to embrace the breadth and depth of the Characteristics. No existing models or measurements incorporated all of the elements and sub-elements identified. (3) The two psychological characteristics will better predict distress and sense of danger, compared with the four demographic characteristics. English. X 2013 2012 Lowe SR, Sampson L, Gruebner O, Galea S. Psychological resilience after hurricane sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster. Stratta P, Capanna C, Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Patriarca S, Di Emidio G, et al. As the founding group of agencies we have enjoyed, as well as been overwhelmed by, the wealth of insight that the Characteristics can provide. Being able to see the world and the situations you are faced with in a realistic way is … Tierney KJ. Shirani F. The centrality of social capital: Concepts of community in the era of the big society [working paper]. The mental health of a community can be affected long after a disaster, with the immediate trauma and more chronic secondary stressors resulting in a range of disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression in a significant minority of individuals64,66. BMC Health Serv Res. A resilient community is one that takes intentional action to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its citizens and institutions to respond to, and influence the course of social and economic change (pg. 56), Resilience describes attributes and capabilities that enable an entity to dynamically adjust and positively adapt to adverse forces or impacts and emerge afterward in a positive functional state. At the same time, it draws attention to the resilience of the community itself. American Behavioral Scientist. Effective Communication Economic investment Atlanta, GA: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; 2013. IFRC Framework for Community Resilience 10 The Red Cross and Red Crescent recogniz-es the richness of the term ‘community’ and appreciates that communities exist in many shapes and forms. Resilience is not an end state but a dynamic process of interdependent forces – at the individual, family, group, and community levels – that continually shape and reshape the organism (pgs. Elements The unique definitions can be found in on-line supplementary Table 1. Eng. 2012 A comparison of the elements found in widely cited reviews, models and measurements of community resilience is given in supplementary Table 3. The paradigm: a community, sometimes called its ‘social network’, was as. 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