There are a least six round seals with a bull and Harappan pictographs from Ur but more finds of this type, although without contexts, have been reported from Ur, Lagash and possibly other sites. However, facts may be noted : The Production Unit is further divided into two sub – units : Important Interpretation Undoubtedly, for giving protection to commercial interests of the Mesopotamians. Along with these finds, one has to consider the occurrence of steatite/chlorite vessel fragments bearing hut motif at Mohenjodaro and Dholavira. In time, the old features get either lost or transformed into the new ones. A few seals share Indian as well as Mesopotamian characteristics. To the Kassite levels of about the 14th century BC, with a strong focus on the Sargonid context of c. 2325 BC or a little earlier. It gives us a clear idea that the ”traders, Akkadian, Iranian, Indian … behaved in much the same way as merchants do the world over today”. Long distance trade invariably implies the existence of entrepots, particularly if the entrepots themselves have also to offer some goods, for ultimate destination. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Carnelian beads : Etched carnelian beads have been found almost on all Indus sites Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Gumla, Amri III, Kalibangan, Surkotada IC, Lothal , Chanhudaro as also on some Persian, Gulf and, Iranian sites, such as Shahdad Susa, and Mesopotamian sites such as Ur, Kish, Al Hiba, and Tell Asmar. Between the producers and the consumers, now a chain of expertise, including that of the transporters, look after the interests of the two parties, but the expertise of the authorized agents, who look after the profit and loss aspect of the transactions or who share the profits and also bear a part of the losses, is always vital. The External Trade of the Indus Civilization. - Volume 57 Issue 220 In addition to an etched carnelian bead found on the surface, Tepe Yahya, located to the southeast of Kirman, yielded a sherd having directly above its base a Harappan pictographs, an etched carnelian bead and a ‘terracotta type’ object with a square sealing in the middle. The unit looking after the availability of raw materials, and They were situated eastward and were the source of raw – materials and also finished goods. Harappan Trade. At Jiroft in the Halil Valley of southeastern Iran, the finds of two Harappan seals have been noted. The important evidence from Altyn Tepe consists of a square soapstone / alasbaster seal with two Harappan pictographs, a tall perforated cylindrical jar, and etched carnelian bead and possibly segmented faience beads. There are four indisputably Harappan seals : two from Kish and one each from Lagash and Nippur. The sequence of characters tally with those found on Indus seals in India. Probably, hill – forests of Gujarat were providing these kinds of wood, although the Himalayan sources may have provided them easily through the Indus water – course. He, therefore, visualizes a situation in which the Mesopotamia and Indus merchants met and exchanged their goods in the central place marke:s, and avoided going to each others’ country personally. who boasted that boats from Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha came to the quay of Akkad. The Harappan Civilization (HC) was spread over large parts of western region of the Indian Subcontinent. But let it be clearly stated that we do not as yet have any textual evidence for it. From southern Baluchistan men and material must have come directly to several places in Sind – Allahdino and Balakot both have yielded enough evidence for it. Parsis in India present the closest modern analogy. The relevant south Iranian sites are Shahdad, Tepe Yahya, Jalalbad, Kalleh Nissar, some indeterminate places in Luristan, and Susa. There is also an area of the study of various motifs and designs, such as the presence of a hero – a ‘Gilgamesh’ – like figure – between two lions/tigers – on a number of seals from Mohenjodaro. May be there were a few temporary stations on the coast but we have no knowledge about them as yet. The point to make here is that there was a network of traditional trade covering jthe entire region between the Harappan and Mesopotamia right up to the nineteenth century, and it would historically be correct to view the external trade of this civilization from this perspective. Read External Trade of the Indus Civilization book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. The north Iranian route which passes through the southern side of the Elburz range has Hissar and Shah Tepe on it, but Marlik is located to the north of the Elburz. In the ultimate analysis, however, the mechanism adopted by the Distribution Unit for the sale of goods was partly indirect and partly direct. It is our hunch that the Harappans got in return these items, although some luxury items, organic and inorganic both, may also have jbeen imported. TRADE The Indus people were greatly reliant on trade. Still, it may be noted that texts are the only real basis for the history of this trade. There are also reports of three Harappan seals in Luristan. However, the valley of twin rivers could evolve a magnificent civilization mainly because of its nearness to the hilly regions of Iran and Anotolia which were very rich in mineral resources and its ability to mobilize them. The above details fall in the framework we are visualizing here ; stationing of a small number of Indus agents in Mesopotamian towns. Mesopotamia, like the Indus Valley, was also, by and large, devoid of basic raw materials for industrial diversification. The Harappan and Harappan – related objects occur in Bahrain, Failaka, Sharjah and the Oman peninsula in the Gulf area. Search . Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. Various kinds of metals and precious stones were needed by craftsmen to make goods, but as these were not available locally they had to be brought from outside. The external trade was in favour of Harappan civilization. Ras al – Junayaz in Oman has shown an Harappan inscribed sherd, a typical Harappan steatite seal and an ivory comb in association with the remains of a wooden boat coated with bitumen. The cylinger seals found at the Indus sites may therefore also be interpreted as the proof of the stationing of the Mesopotamian agents in India. in these regions; in Mesopotamia cities like Susa, Ur, etc . Their discovery and excavation in the 19th and 20th centuries provided important archaeological data regarding the civilization’s technology, art, trade, transportation, writing, and religion. Harappan seals and materials found in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian sites as well as in Oman, Bahrain and Iran. Describe the economy, society and religion of Harappan Civilization. At a later date we find similar standard being used by the Assyrians ; of course, only indirectly. The traders of this Civilization had contact with the foreign lands for the goods, which were not available locally. Chank – shell : The shell objects have been found at Ur Brak, Kish and Susa. A glazed steatite cylinder seal, showing the procession of an elephant, a rhinoceros and a crocodile, has been discovered at Tell Asmar in the cluster of Indian objects. There is also a report of a cylinder seal with Harappan inscription from Iranian Seistan. The miscellaneous Harappan finds in north Afghanistan, mostly carnelian beads etched with white designs and occasional Harappan seals, come from the looted graves of the Bactria area, of which Mazar – i – Sharif may be considered a central point.It is possible that some of these finds are related to the Mature Harappan context. There is also an area of the study of various motifs and designs, such as the presence of a hero – a ‘Gilgamesh’ – like figure – between two lions/tigers – on a number of seals from Mohenjodaro. According to Rao, Kathiawar coast was no less rich in this material. Indus Valley Civilisation MCQ Questions and answers with easy explanations. The two earliest calibrated dates from the site of Dashly 3, which shows trefoil designs and humped bulls as decorations on alabaster plates and kidney – shaped vases of steatite as evidence of its Harappan contacts, fall before the mid – third millennium BC, but a number of dates from the same site show the continuity of the site till the middle of the second millennium BC. There are two Harappan – related seals from Susa, one a cylinder seal with badly done Harappan characters, and the other a circular seal with similar characters. They may have been the authorized agents with political sanction. Some Indus sealings found at Mesopotamian sites are undoubtedly to be treated as direct imports from the Indus Valley. Our contention is that the Harappan trade was partly direct and partly indirect because we feel that the Indo – Mesopotamian trade was mixed, it was neither completely state – controlled nor completely privately owned and it used not only the sea route but also land routes. Kalleh Nisar in the Luristan region between the Fars plain and southwest Iran yielded an unspecified number of etched carnelian beads. 1. On the face of it, the two models mentioned above appear to have over – simplified the situation, or, one may say, each one presented a lop – sided picture. These examples are all found in Tepe Yahya IVA whorse terminal date, when calibrated, is around 2800 BC. Fish, textiles, leather, cereals, perfumed fats and ointments have been the major items exported by Addadian merchants, though largely between one city state and the other. The seals found in Mesopotamia were certainly used by the Indus merchants or their agents as identification marks on the goods they collected in the local markets and then sent to Indus ports. staple of Indian trade through the centuries, such The issue of routes is fairly straightforward. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Most of the articles of these items are typically Indian. There are also long barrel – cylinder carnelian and etched carnelian beads at Susa. It is called Harappan because the remnants of the civilization was discovered first at the modern site of Harappa located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. In the nineteenth century, Oman sent to India pearls, mother – of – pearl, dried limes, fresh fruit and salt fish, i.e. It is to this organ of trade – operation that we will focus the attention of scholars. The number of Harappan related artefacts is much more in west and central Asia and the Gulf than vice versa. These examples are all found in Tepe Yahya IVA whorse terminal date, when calibrated, is around 2800 BC. Dales suggest that the origin of this type of dice possibly lies in the Indus cities. On the basis of two to three impressions of different seals on a few clay sealings recovered from the Lothal warehouse , Rao proposes the theory of ‘profit sharing partnership’, i.e., the parties in trade and the warehouse authorities stamped the cargo jointly with their own marks for purposes of authority ad identification. Mention may be made among them of a fragment of steatite vase from Tell Agrab, which shows a humped bull tethered in front of a building. The number of Harappan related artefacts is much more in west and central Asia and the Gulf than vice versa. Ivory : It was the main product of Kathiawar and the Indus basin. This shows that there were other elements of cross – cultural interactions between Mesopotamia on the one hand and the Harappan area on the other. The ships containing smaller items may have travelled only as far as Magan or Dilmun, that is at ports between Sutkagendor and Bahrein or failaka islands. Read more about Materializing Harappan identities: unity and diversity in the borderlands of the Indus Civilization New excavations at the Umm an-Nar site Ras al-Hadd HD-1, Sultanate of Oman (seasons 2016–2018): insights on cultural interaction and long-distance trade Objects of unmistakably Indian origin are discovered in Bahrain island but they are not in such a large quantity as to be certain that this was the storehouse of substantial amount of goods from India or Mesopotamia. The site of Jalalbad in the Persepolis Plain of Fars yielded 8 long – barrel cylinder carnelian and 3 etched carnelian beads on the surface. The external trade of the Harappan Civilization comprises the Harappan and Harappan related objects found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Mesopotamia and the Gulf region. 1. To learn more, view our, Ancient Near East abiding metaphor of hieroglyph kāṇḍa 'sacred water' Rebus khãḍ 'metal tools' A bilingual Sumerian seal with indus Script hieroglyphs and Sumerian cuneiform, Maritime trade of Meluhha (Sarasvati civilization) with Dilmun -- Susa pot, Kuwait gold disc, Gadd seal of Ur with cuneiform text and scores of other ANE seals with Indus Script, Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization contacts across Persian Gulf and Indus Script seals used by मेढ meḍh,'metal merchants' for trade, Potts 2007 Babylonian sources of exotic raw materials. External Trade . There are four indisputably Harappan seals : two from Kish and one each from Lagash and Nippur. Cotton : The discovery of a terracotta sealing with the impression of wove fabric from Lothal the actual cotton cloth piece sticking to the base of a silver vase from Mohenjodaro a number of accessories of cotton weavers found at Lothal and other Indus cities and the seal impression with the cotton cloth from Umma indicate that cotton may have been one of the major items on the list of export items. Modern firearms can, AMITY INSTITUTE OF FORENSIC SCIENCES GENERAL FORENSIC SCIENCE, The external trade of the Harappan Civilization comprises the Harappan and Harappan related objects found in Afghanistan, ASSESSMENT effective porosity, volume of shale, and water. To begin with, in the context of Indus – Mesopotamian economic interaction, we visualize a multi – tired structure as against simple two – tired structure of pre – urban societies. The foregoing account is a short summary of the actual Harappan artefacts found in the Gulf, Afghanistan, Iran, and north and south Mesopotamia. The entrepots must have been attracting a number of agents from all directions. The Harappan finds in the Ras – al – Had peninsula of Oman, which happens to be the landfall of the ships sailing with the help of the monsoon winds from Gujarat to Oman, strongly suggest that the use of the monsoon winds was known to the Harappan traders. The evidence of numerous seals, granaries, uniform script depicts that trade played a significant role in the economy of Harappan Civilization. We feel that the Indus seals Indus seals in India belonged to merchants, pot – authorities and ship – captains, although in the absence of the deciphered scripi it cannot conclusively be proved. It was possibly sent to Mesopotamia by some Indus merchant. Later on also Indian timber was required. Morning Star solutions for Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE chapter 1 (The Harappan Civilisation) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The whole period of Harappan civilization is in fact divided into three phases: (i) Early Harappan phase (3500 BC 2600 BC) it was marked by some town-planning in the form of mud structures, elementary trade, arts and crafts, etc., (ii) Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC 1900 BC) it … At tell Abraq in Sharjah there are two Harappan weights and an ivory comb, the latter assigned to Bactria on account of a flower decoration on it. Ras al – Junayaz in Oman has shown an Harappan inscribed sherd, a typical Harappan steatite seal and an ivory comb in association with the remains of a wooden boat coated with bitumen. Not for territorial gains is obvious from the circumstances particularly space. In the internal area of the Harappan Civilization, a Gulf – type round seal was reported from the surface at Lothal. In all likelihood, in a few selected Mesopotamian towns authorized Indian agents were permanently stationed. Harappan and Harappan – related objects, mostly beads and seals, come from both south and north Iraq. What could be the underlying reasons for this military expedition beyond Magan? The second sub – unit was the joint venture of the agents and the expert sailors. Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC-1900 BC): It was the period in which we notice well-developed towns with burnt brick structures, inland and foreign trade, crafts of various types, etc. To us, it appears that it belongs to some ship – captain working at both the ends for merchants, possibly as an authorized agent. Be that as it may, the crucial point is to understand the underlying factors which were responsible for such products. Between Meluhha and Ur there were at least two places – Magan and Dilmun – which must have served as most viable areas for entrepots. Some of the entrepots may have also worked as ‘clearing houses’ for small consignments for places in the neighbouring regions, such as those on the eastern coast of Arabia, say in Abu Dhabi. It clearly shows that the role of the Meluhhans may have been of a kind grossly different from those of the Dilmunites and Maganians. There are a least six round seals with a bull and Harappan pictographs from Ur but more finds of this type, although without contexts, have been reported from Ur, Lagash and possibly other sites. Shahdad is at the edge of the south Iranian desert Dasht -i – Lut, and it yielded a large number of etched carnelian beads. During the Harappan period, in all probability, on the Sumerian analogy agents of the manufactures were looking after the first sub – unit of the major unit ‘Distribution’. The dice from Ur is comparable with an agate dice from Mohenjodaro. The came up in response to the Harappan need for Badakhshan lapis, the tin of north Afghnistan and Central Asia, and the horses of Tadjikistan, and it might also represent a traditional geopolitical concern with the region. This can be inferred from the evidence of seals, which is of two kinds : (a) the so – called entrepots have rarely yielded any true Harappan seal, while (b) the big Mesopotamian cities have yielded them, albeit in restricted numbers. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. In this whole structure one element which has been fundamental to the operative system is ‘agent’ but it has not attracted sufficient attention of scholars. Free delivery on qualified orders. There may have been other such forests also. After coming back to the production centre, they could have shipped the consignments directly from some Harappan port with the help of the ship – captain and the crew after packing the goods carefully with full identification – the name of the consigner, and also the trade mark. Late Harappan phase (1900 BC-1400 BC): It was the phase of decline during which many cities were abandoned and the trade disappeared leading to the gradual decay of the significant urban traits. Consequently, he states, they cannot be taken as proof of direct commercial contacts between India and Mesopotamia. In the 1920s, archaeologists began to excavate the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. A small square seal with a swastika design has been found at Kish in Mesopotamia and Altin Depe in south Turkmenia. A number of Mohenjodaro seals depict a man struggling between two animals presumably tigers. In the internal area of the Harappan Civilization, a Gulf – type round seal was reported from the surface at Lothal. Samallum (agent or helper of merchant) and Mari sipri (messenger employed in the trade for the transport of letters and merchandise) (cf. In recent years, our knowledge about the extent of the Harappa cultural has increased considerably which has a direct bearing on the long distance Harappan trade as well as the highland – lowland interaction for economic needs. Buy: Amazon India. about two dozens of Harappan seals have been found. There are relevant sites in both north and south Iran. The Harappans had developed direct commercial links with the people of Sumer. Sargon of Addad clearly mentions the arrival of Meluhhan ships loaded bay at Addad. In this context, it is extremely significant to note that the small site of Allahdino, within the metropolitan city of Karachi, has yielded an unusually large number of copper implements, more than a hundred, and also earthen pots while no evidence of factories and kilns have as yet been found in or near the habitation. Analyze the internal and external trade pattern of Harappa civilization. 2. According to Mackay these seals were imported into Sumer from some Indus site, other than Mohenjodaro and Harappa. The Mesopotamian texts of the same period refer to trade relations with ‘Meluha’ which was the ancient name given to Indus region. Intermediary stations were not important in her scheme of things although she also accepts the role of Persian Gulf States as entrepots. This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. Indus finds in Mesopotamia and at Susa are meager, their presence further down the Gulf is also limited : one lapis pendant, some stone weights from Bahrein one etched carnelian bead from Umma – a – Nar, some Indian ‘style’ seals from Bahrein, a plain pot – sherd, with a seal impression having. Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]; Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal.The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north. Direct securing orders for goods directly from using agencies. The recovery of sixty – five terracotta sealings, some of them bearing the impressions of packing material on the other side, from the warehouse of Lothal leaves no doubt in accepting the suggestion that the Indus seals were the commercial tools used for sealing the cargo. To the Kassite levels of about the 14th century BC, with a strong focus on the Sargonid context of c. 2325 BC or a little earlier. Etched carnelian beads have also been reported from Abu Salabikh and Tell Brak (a site in northeast Syria but very much within the north Mesopotamian orbit). The Mesopotamian texts present ample evidence not only for imports but also exports, although none of the known texts appears to have given the exhaustive list of these items. The Royal Graves of Ur have also yielded Harappan long barrel – cylinder carnelian and etched carnelian beads. Tepe has yielded Harappan seal. For example Seal No.I of Gadd’s list (1932) is squarish with a perforated button on the ridged back and the Indus bull with the archaic Cuneiform legend on the front. At Jiroft in the Halil Valley of southeastern Iran, the finds of two Harappan seals have been noted. 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Of numerous seals, come from both south and north Iraq parpola ( 1975 ) have argued favour!
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